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Minority Ethnic Groups in China  

 

Here is the official outline from the Chinese government.

Equality, unity, mutual help and common prosperity are the basic principles of the Chinese government in handling the relations between ethnic groups. The Constitution of the PRC specifies that all ethnic groups are equal. The state guarantees the lawful rights and interests of the minority peoples. Discrimination against or oppression of any ethnic group is prohibited; all acts that undermine the unity of the ethnic groups or create splittism among them are forbidden. Big-ethnic group chauvinism, mainly Han-chauvinism, or chauvinism on a local level, is banned. Every ethnic group has the freedom to use its own spoken and written languages, and to retain or change its customs.

In accordance with these basic policies, China practices a system whereby national minorities exercise regional autonomy. where national minorities live in compact communities autonomous organs of self-government are established under the unified leadership of the Central Government. The minority people shall exercise autonomous rights, be masters in their own areas and administer the internal affairs of their ethnic group. The National Minority Regional Autonomy Law adopted in 1984 by the Second.

Session of the Sixth National People's Congress provides specific guidelines for guaranteeing that the constitutionally decreed national minority regional autonomy system is carried out.

In addition to five autonomous regions (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, founded on May 1, 1947; Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, founded on October 1, 1955; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, founded on March 5, 1958; Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, founded on October 25, 1958; and Tibet Autonomous Region, founded on September 9, 1965), China currently has 30 autonomous prefectures and 120 autonomous counties (or, in some cases, banners), in addition to more than 1,300 ethnic townships. Self-government in autonomous national minority areas is effected through the people's congress and people's government at the particular local level.

The chairperson or vice-chairperson of the standing committee of the people's congress and the head of the government of an autonomous region, autonomous prefecture or autonomous county should be from the areas designated minority people.Organs of self-government in regional autonomous areas enjoy extensive self-government rights beyond those held by other state organs at the same level. These include enacting regulations on autonomy and special regulations corresponding to local political, economic and cultural conditions, having independent control of the local revenue, and independently arranging and managing construction, education, science, culture, public health and other local undertakings.

The Central Government has greatly assisted in the training of minority cadres and technicians through the establishment of national minority universities (colleges) and national minority cadre schools to supplement regular colleges and universities. It has, in addition, supplied the national minority autonomous areas with large quantities of financial aid and material resources in order to promote their economic and cultural development.


Miao Girls in formal festival dress

 

China's Ethnic Minority Population and Distribution

(Date of the Fourth National Chinese Census, July 1, 1990)

EthnicGroup

Population
(100,000)

Major Areas of Distribution

Mongol

48.024

Inner Mongolia,Xinjiang,Liaoning,Jilin,Heilongjiang,
Gansu,Hebei,
Henan,Qinghai

Hui

86.120

Ninxia,Gansu,Henan,Hebei,Qinghai,Shandong,
Yunnan,Xinjiang,Anhui,
Liaoning,Heilongjiang,Jilin,Shaanxi,Beijing,Tianjin

Tibetan

45.931

Tibet,Qinghai,Sichuan,Gansu,Yunnan

Uygur

72.070

Xinjiang

Miao

73.836

Guizhou,Hunan,Yunnan,Guangxi,Sichuan,Hainan,Hubei

Yi

65.785

Sichuan,Yunnan,Guizhou,Guangxi

Zhuang

155.558

Guangxi,Yunnan,Guangdong,Guizhou

Bouyei

25.483

Guizhou

Korean

19.234

Jilin,Liaoning,Heilongjiang

Manchu

98.468

Liaoning,Jilin,Heilongjiang,Hebei,Beijing,InnerMongolia

Dong

25.086

Guizhou,Hunan,Guangxi

Yao

21.370

Guangxi,Hunan,Yunnan,Guangdong,Guizhou

Bai

15.981

Yunnan,Guizhou

Tujia

57.250

Hunan,Hubei

Hani

12.548

Yunnan

Kazak

11.108

Xinjiang,Gansu,Qinghai

Dai

10.254

Yunnan

Li

11.125

Hainan

Lisu

5.746

Yunnan,Sichuan

Va

3.520

Yunnan

She

6.347

Fujian,Zhejiang,Jiangxi,Guangdong

Gaoshan

0.029

Taiwan,Fujian

Lahu

4.115

Yunnan

Shui

3.471

Guizhou,Guangxi

Dongxiang

3.737

Gansu,Xinjiang

Naxi

2.778

Yunnan,Sichuan

Jingpo

1.193

Yunnan

Kirgiz

1.435

Xinjiang,Heilongjiang

Tu

1.926

Qinghai,Gansu

Daur

1.215

Inner Mongolia,Heilongjiang,Xinjiang

Mulam

1.606

Guangxi

Qiang

1.983

Sichuan

Blang

0.824

Yunnan

Salar

0.875

Qinghai,Gansu

Maonan

0.724

Guangxi

Gelo

4.382

Guizhou,Guangxi

Xibe

1.729

Xinjiang,Liaoning,Jilin

Achang

0.277

Yunnan

Pumi

0.297

Yunnan

Tajik

0.332

Xinjiang

Nu

0.272

Yunnan

Ozbek

0.148

Xinjiang

Russian

0.135

Xinjiang

Ewenki

0.264

Inner Mongolia,Heilongjiang

Deang

0.155

Yunnan

Bonan

0.117

Gansu

Yugur

0.123

Gansu

Jing

0.187

Guangxi

Tatar

0.051

Xinjiang

Drung

0.058

Yunnan

Oroqen

0.070

Inner Mongolia,Heilongjiang

Hezhen

0.043

Heilongjiang

Moinba

0.075

Tibet

Lhoba

0.023

Tibet

Jino

0.180

Yunnan


Dong Girls